Ripley K

Ripley's K and its derivative, the L function,  are widely used for detecting clusters over various spatial scales.   The figure below is one of my favorites for illustrating the concept of a phenomenon displaying one spatial pattern over long distances, and another pattern over short distances. (Source)   The genius of the K function is … Continue reading Ripley K


Rank Size Rule and Polynucleated Cities

This week I read Michael Batty's (2001) paper on polynucleated urban landscape. Admittedly, the paper was published a long time ago, but the topic is still relevant as there is still a lot of interest in understanding the structure of system of urban places. Batty's paper essentially argues that the appearance of edge cities in … Continue reading Rank Size Rule and Polynucleated Cities

Geography and Spatial Analysis since the 1960s

In the 1960s, Geography experienced what came to be known as the quantitative revolution.  Taking its cue from earlier efforts in the 1950s to move away from purely descriptive approaches,  Geographers started emphasizing hypothesis testing, data collection, statistical and mathematical analysis, model building,  spatial patterns, and theories and laws to explain spatial patterns.   To be … Continue reading Geography and Spatial Analysis since the 1960s


Both geography and cartography have regained significant popularity in the last two decades as students are increasingly drawn to job opportunities in the geospatial world. In this blog site, I share my own tidbits from geography, GIS, cartography, and planning - fields in which I have spent few years poking around.